Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), also known as ice structural proteins (ISPs) generally refers to a class of polypeptides produced by certain a plants, animals, fungi and bacteria, which allow these organisms to survive in the sub-zero environment. It is a type of protein that reduces the freezing point of aqueous solution that results in the difference between freezing point and melting point of aqueous solution (known as thermal hysteresis). It also helps in preventing the growth of a small ice crystal into a large one by preventing water from freezing. This is done in a non-colligative manner helping to reduce or avoid recrystallisation in storage. Organisms having AFPs can be bifurcated into freeze avoidant that prevent its body fluid from freezing and freeze tolerant that are able to survive the freezing of its body fluid.
The global antifreeze proteins market stood at USD 4 billion in 2021 and is likely to reach USD 27 billion by the end of 2027 by registering a CAGR of 36.3% during the forecast period, 2021-2027. The major reason for the growing demand is due to increasing the shelf life of frozen products and improving its quality. Because of the numerous benefits in present in antifreeze proteins, the application has been increased in fishery and agriculture, food processing, anti-icing material development etc.
Drastic increase in the research and development of antifreeze protein and increase in technological advancement has resulted in expanding the usage of AFPs in various commercial sectors and the market is expected to have a rapid growth in both volume and value.
Initially, antifreeze proteins were used only to store ice-creams and now it has been used for various items especially in freezing and thawing food and in various industries. Also, the Cosmetic industry has been using the antifreeze protein largely as an additive to reduce the quality degradation like maintain the quality of fat and oil because there is no water crystallisation. Even the segments like agriculture, petroleum, climate control, and artificial snow production, etc are now relying more on antifreeze protein. Added to it, change in customer preference for convenience food, natural products, and rapid urbanisation fuels the growth of antifreeze protein market.
Based on the type, the global antifreeze protein market can be segmented into Type I, Type III, Antifreeze glycoproteins, Others. The Type I segment accounts for the largest share in the market for the year 2021. For many years, A/F Protein Inc. has successfully extracted and developed antifreeze proteins from southern flounder (such as winter flounder). Most of the extracted proteins are type I because they are simple forms of antifreeze proteins that can be identified in the DNA sequence and are abundant. Therefore, it is estimated that it has a larger market share in the global antifreeze protein market.
The Antifreeze Glycoprotein is also expected to grow revenue due its advancement in the research. It is a biological antifreeze agent that are found abundantly in the Antarctic and Artic species of fish. It helps in inhabiting the growth of ice in both vitro and vivo.
Based on then form, the global antifreeze proteins can be bifurcated into solid and liquid. The solid segment dominates the market with increasing revenue for the forecasted period. It is expected that the demand for antifreeze proteins in these downstream industries will continue to grow because the shelf life for frozen products is more in solid form compared to the liquid form.
Based on source, the global antifreeze proteins market can be segmented into Fish, Plants, Insects, Others. The antifreeze proteins obtained from fish, is expected to have a huge growth in the revenue as they are the oldest mean for extracting and are still used widely. The antifreeze protein is a group of certain macromolecules that helps marine bony fishes from freezing which is now used in numerous ways in many industries.
The insect segment has also seen a significant growth because of the low cost of extracting antifreeze proteins and the unique property that they have compared to all the other form of sources.
Based on the application, the global antifreeze proteins market can be segmented into Pharmaceutical Industries, Cosmetic Industries, Food Industries, Others. The pharmaceutical industry dominates the market with maximum revenue share because of the wide usage on antifreeze proteins in various medical procedure like cryosurgery and organ transplantation. It helps in storing the organs for a longer period of time and prevents damaging. Blood banks uses it for storing the blood platelets in frozen state that reduces the maintenance cost.
Based on the region, the global antifreeze proteins market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, and Middle East & Africa. North America witnesses the highest growth revenue because of the increasing research institutes in life science and biotechnology. The rising demand in various applications mainly in cosmetic and food and beverage is also the key reason.
Companies such as Unilever, Aqua Bounty Technologies, Kaneka Corp, Shanghai Yu Tao Industrial Co., Ltd., Kodera Herb Garden Co., Ltd, Nichirei Corporation, Beijing Shenzhen Yago Technology Ltd, Huacheng Ji nke Technology Co., Ltd, Protokinetix, Others are the key players in the global antifreeze markets.